Peer-Reviewed Publications

Google Scholar Page:

Codes for authors

P Auburn University Postdoctoral Fellow      PS Auburn University Postdoc in Schwartz Lab

G Auburn Graduate Student                              GS Auburn Graduate Student in Schwartz Lab

U Auburn Undergraduate Student                   REU Research Experience for Undergraduate Student

UO Undergraduate other institution

* Co-first authorship representing equal contributions

Coming soon! (In Peer-Review Process)
Peer-reviewed publications by Tonia Schwartz and members of her research team.
Below the citation, in blue, is a layperson's summary of the findings.
Book Chapters

Schwartz, TS and AM Bronikowski. 2011. Molecular Stress Pathways and the Evolution of Life Histories in Reptiles. In Flatt & Heyland (Eds) Molecular Mechanisms of Life History Evolution, Oxford University Press.

Journal Articles

60. Westfall, AK(GS), Telemeco RS(PS), Grizante MB, Waits DS, Clark AD(GS), Simpson DY(GS), Klabacka RL(GS), Sullivan AP, Perry GH, Sears MW, Cox CL, Cox RM, Gifford ME, John-Alder HB, Langkilde T, Angilletta MJ, Leaché AD, Tollis M, Kusumi K, Schwartz TS. 2021. A chromosome-level genome assembly for the Eastern Fence Lizard (Sceloporus undulatus), a reptile model for physiological and evolutionary ecology. GigaScience.

bioRxiv 2020.06.06.138248.   doi:

59. Beatty, AE(GS), DM Mote(US), TS Schwartz. 2021. Tails of reproduction: Regeneration leads to increased reproductive investment. Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 335(5), 522–528.

58. Ivy-Israel, NMD(G), CE Moore(G), TS Schwartz, TD Steury, S Zohdy, CH Newbolt(G), SS Ditchkoff. 2021. Association between sexually selected traits and allelic distance in two unlinked MHC II loci in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Evolutionary Ecology, 35(3), 513–535.

57. Beatty AE(GS), CJ Ballen, E Driessen (G), TS Schwartz , RM Graze. 2021. Addressing the unique qualities of upper-division biology CUREs through the integration of skill-building. Integrative and Comparative Biology.

56. Beaty, AE(GS), TS Schwartz. 2020 Gene expression of the IGF hormones and IGF binding proteins across time and tissues in a model reptile.  Physiological Genomics.

55. Ivy-Israel, NMD(G),  CE Moore(G), TS Schwartz, SS Ditchkoff.  2020 Characterization of two MHC II genes (DOB, DRB) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). BMC Genomics.

54. Gangloff, E*, TS Schwartz,* R Klabacka(GS), A-Y Liu, N Huebschman(UO), AB Bronikowski. 2020. Mitochondria as the central character in a complex narrative: Linking genomics, energetics, and pace-of-life in natural populations of garter snakes. Experimental Gerontology.

In this article, we show connections among mitochondrial function, organismal metabolism, and genetic variants in long-studied garter snake populations that are either fast- (FA) or slow-aging (SA). At the cellular level, we demonstrate that Fast-aging snakes consume more oxygen relative to Slow-aging snakes; this difference becomes bigger as animals become older. Additionally, we found that genetic variation in the mitochondrial genome (cytochrome-B SNP) is associated with the fast- and slow-aging phenotypes, and the genetic variation predicts metabolic rate in a sex-specific manner.

53. Schwartz, TS. 2020. The promises and the challenges of integrating multi-omics and systems biology in comparative stress biology. Integrative and Comparative Biology.

In this perceptive article I discuss the potential and the difficulties of using "big" genetic, protein and metabolism datasets (-omics) to help us understand how plants and animals respond to stressors. The target audience is students and those researchers who are considering integrating -omics approaches in their stress biology research.

52. Waits, D, D Simpson(REU), A Sparkman, AM Bronikowski, TS Schwartz. 2020. Utility of reptile blood transcriptomes in molecular ecology. Molecular Ecology Resources. 20(1)


51. Hoekstra, L, TS Schwartz, A Sparkman, D Miller, A Bronikowski. 2020. The untapped potential of reptile biodiversity for understanding how and why animals age. Functional Ecology. In Press.

50.  Romero, M(G), P Mumford, P Roberson, S Osburn, H Parry, A Kavazis, L Gladden, TS Schwartz, B Baker, R Toedebusch, T Childs, F Booth, M Roberts. 2019. Five months of voluntary wheel running downregulates skeletal muscle LINE-1 activity in rats. American Journal of Physiology. 317(6):C1313-C1323. DOI:


49. Zohdy, S, TS Schwartz. 2019. Shoo fly don’t bother me: Flies track social primates, and carry viable anthrax. Molecular Ecology. 28(18):4135-4127.


48. Telemeco, RS(PS), D Simpson(GS), C Tylan, T Langkilde, TS Schwartz. 2019. Contrasting cellular and endocrine responses of lizards to divergent ecological stressors. Integrative and Comparative Biology.


47. Zohdy S, TS Schwartz, J. Oaks.  2019. The coevolution effect as an ecological driver of viral spillover. Trends in Parasitology. 35(6):P399-408. DOI:


46. Bererhi, B, E Wapstra, TS Schwartz, M Olsson. 2019. Contrasting inbreeding effects during lizard ontogeny. Conservation Genetics.


45. Passow, CN, AM Bronikowski, H Blackmon, S Parsai, TS Schwartz, SE McGaugh. 2019 Contrasting patterns of rapid molecular evolution within the p53-network across mammal and reptile lineages. Genome Biology and Evolution. 11(3): 629-643.

44. Olsson, M, TS Schwartz, E Wapstra, R Shine. 2019.  How accurately do behavioural observations predict reproductive success in free-ranging lizards?  Biology Letters. 15(2):

43. Sparkman, AM, AD Clark, LJ Brummett(UO), KR Chism(UO), LL Combrink(UO), NM Kabey(UO), TS Schwartz. 2018. Convergence in reduced body size, head size, and blood glucose in three island reptiles. Ecology and Evolution. 8(12):6169-6182. doi: 10.1002/ece3.4171

Here we demonstrate the differences between the mainland and island populations for three reptile species. We presented 6 years of body size, relative head size, and blood glucose measurements from two mainland California populations and two California Channel Islands. Our data indicates that the three reptiles have independently obtained lower blood glucose levels and smaller body sizes on islands relative to the mainland populations, which is consistent with lower resource availability in island habitats.

42. Gibbs, VK, TS Schwartz, MS Johnson, A Patki, TR Nagy, BJ George, DB Allison. 2018. No significant effect of maternal perception of the food environment on reproductive success or pup outcomes in C57BL/6 mice. Obesity. 26(4):723-729. doi: 10.1002/oby.22141.

41. Nelson, JRG, TS Schwartz, JM Gohlke. 2018. Influence of maternal age on the effects of seleno-L-methionine in the model organism Daphnia pulex under standard and heat stress conditions. Reproductive Toxicology. 75:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.11.001

40. McGaugh, S, TS Schwartz. 2017. Here and there, but not everywhere: repeated loss of uncoupling protein 1 in amniotes. Biology Letters 13(1): 20160749.  doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2016.0749

39. Schwartz, TS, P Pearson(UO), J Dawson,  DB Allison, JM Gohlke. 2016. Effects of fluctuating temperature and food availability on reproduction and lifespan. Experimental Gerontology. 86: 62-72.   doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2016.06.010

38. Reding, DM, EA Addis, MG Palacios, TS Schwartz, AM Bronikowski. 2016. Environmental and genetic effects on insulin-like signaling and postnatal growth in garter snakes with divergent life histories. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 233: 88-99. doi: 10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.05.018

37. Schwartz, TS, AM Bronikowski. 2016. Evolution and Function of the Insulin and Insulin-like Signaling Network in Ectothermic Reptiles: Some Answers and More Questions? Integrative and Comparative Biology. 56(2): 171-184.

36. Schwartz, TS, Z Arendsee(U*), AM Bronikowski. 2015. Mitochondrial divergence between slow- and fast-aging garter snakes. Experimental Gerontology. 71:135-146.  doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2015.09.004


35.  McGaugh SE, AM Bronikowski, C-H Kuo, DM Reding, EA Addis, LE Flagel, FJ Janzen, TS Schwartz. 2015. Rapid molecular evolution across amniotes of the IIS/TOR network. PNAS. 112(22): 7055-7060.   doi: 10.1073/pnas.1419659112​


34. Schwartz, TS, S Carter, JM Wyss, MS Johnson, ED Dohm, R Gainer, and DB Allison. 2015. Second-hand eating? Perception of the food environment affects reproductive investment in mice. Obesity. doi: 10.1002/oby.21047


33. Schwartz TS and Bronikowski AM. 2015. Gene expression of components of the insulin/insulin-like signaling pathway in response to heat stress in the garter snake, Thamnophis elegans. Iowa Academy of Science.


32.  Allison, DB, LH Antoine, SW Ballinger, MM Bamman, P Biga, VM Darley-Usmar, G Fisher, JM Gohlke, GV Halade, JV Hartman, GR Hunter, JL Messina, TR Nagy, EP Plaisance, ML Powell, KA Roth, MW Sandel, TS Schwartz, DL Smith, JD Sweatt, TO Tollefsbol, SA Watts, Y Yang, J Zhang, and SN Austad, 2014. Aging and Energetics ‘Top 40’ Future Research Opportunities 2010-2013.  F1000Research 3:219  DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.5212.1


31. Uller. T, T Schwartz, T Koglin, M Olsson. 2013. Sperm storage and sperm competition across ovarian cycles in the dragon lizard, Ctenopherus fordi. Journal of Experimental Zoology. 319A:404-408.


30. Ungvari, D, D Sosnowska, JB Mason, H Gruber, SW Lee, TS Schwartz, et al. 2013. Resistance to genotoxic stresses in Arctica islandica, the longest living noncolonial animal: is extreme longevity associated with a multistress resistance phenotype? The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 69(5): 521-529 DOI: 10.1093/gerona/gls193


29. Abramyan, J, DBadenhorst, KK Biggar, GM Borchert, CW Botka, RM Bowden, et al. (58 authors). 2013. The western painted turtle genome, a model for the evolution of extreme physiological adaptations in a slowly evolving lineage. Genome Biology 14(3): DOI:10.1186/GB-2013-14-3-R28.


28. Schwartz, TS, and AM Bronikowski. 2013. Dissecting molecular stress networks: identifying nodes of divergence between life-history phenotypes. Molecular Ecology. 22(3): 739-756 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2012.05750.x


27. Sparkman, AM*, TS Schwartz*, J Madden, SE Boyken, JM Serb, NB Ford, and AM Bronikowski. 2012. Evolutionary rates vary among reptiles for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a pleiotropic locus involved in life history traits. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 178(1): 164-173.

Insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF1) is a protein hormone that promotes  growth, reproduction and survival of cells and organisms. Here we sequenced IGF1 from 11 reptiles and found that the genetic sequence of IGF-1 is changing rapidly in snakes and lizards compared to the other reptiles sequenced. These genetic changes are associated with the IGF-1 hormone activating (binding) other proteins for normal IIS function.


26. Olsson, M, T Schwartz, E Wapstra, T Uller, B Ujvari, T Madsen, and R Shine. 2011. Climate change, multiple paternity and offspring survival in lizards. Evolution 65: 3323-3326.


25. Schwartz, TS, C Perrin, E Wapstra, T Uller, and M Olsson. 2011. Complex selection associated with Hox genes in a natural population of lizards. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 24:2520-2524.


24. Olsson, M, A Pauliny, E Wapstra, T Uller, T Schwartz and D Blomqvist. 2011. Sexual differences in telomere selection in the wild. Molecular Ecology 20: 2085-2099


23. Shaddick, K, C Burridge, D Jerry, T Schwartz, K Truong, D Gilligan, and L Beheregaray. 2011. A hybrid zone and bi-directional introgression between the catadromous species: Australian bass and estuary perch. Journal of Fish Biology. 79: 1214-1235.


22. Olsson, M, A Pauliny, E Wapstra, T Uller, T Schwartz and D Blomqvist. 2011. Sex Differences in Sand Lizard Telomere Inheritance: Paternal Epigenetic Effects Increases Telomere Heritability and Offspring Survival. PLoS ONE 6: e17473.


21. Olsson, M, E Wapstra, T Schwartz, T Madsen, B Ujvari, T Uller and R Shine. 2011. In hot pursuit: fluctuating mating system and sexual selection in sand lizards. Evolution. 65(2): 574-53


20. Schwartz, TS*, H Tae*, Y Yang, K Mockaitis, JL Van Hemert, SR Proulx, J-H Choi, and AM Bronikowski. 2010. A garter snake transcriptome: pyrosequencing, de novo assembly, and sex-specific differences. BMC Genomics. 11: 694-715.


19. Atwell, C, G Holwell, TS Schwartz, K Umbers, A Stow, M Herberstein and L Beheregaray. 2009. Microsatellite markers for the praying mantid Ciulfina rentzi (Liturgusidae). Molecular Ecology Resources. 9(6): 1480-82.


18. Olsson, M, T Schwartz, T Uller and M Healey. 2009. Effects of sperm storage and male colour on probability of paternity in a polychromatic lizard. Animal Behaviour 77:419-424.


17. Corrigan, S, C Huveneers, TS Schwartz, RG Harcourt and LB Beheregaray. 2008. Genetic and reproductive evidence for two species of ornate wobbegong shark on the Australian East Coast. Journal of Fish Biology 73: 1662-1675.


16. Schwartz, TS, S Murray and F Seebacher. 2008. Novel reptilian uncoupling proteins: molecular evolution and gene expression during cold acclimation. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 275: 979-985.


15. Schwartz, TS and LB Beheregaray. 2008. Using genotype simulations and Bayesian analyses to identify individuals of hybrid origin in Australian bass: lessons for fisheries management. Journal of Fish Biology 72: 435-450.


14. Schwartz, T and M Olsson. 2008. Microsatellite markers developed for a Swedish population of sand lizard (Lacerta agilis). Conservation Genetics 9:715-717. Erratum 9:719-721.


13. Schwartz, TS and SA Karl. 2008. Population genetic assignment of confiscated gopher tortoises. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 254-259.


12. Olsson, M, E Wapstra, M Healey, T Schwartz and T Uller. 2008. Selection on space use in a polymorphic lizard. Evolutionary Ecology Research 10:621-627.


11. Schwartz, TS, DA Warner, LB Beheregaray and M Olsson. 2007. Microsatellite loci for Australian agamid lizards. Molecular Ecology Notes 7: 528-531.


10. Olsson, M, T Schwartz, T Uller and M Healey. 2007. Sons are made from old stores: sperm storage effects on sex ratio in a lizard. Biology Letters 3: 491-493.


9. Olsson, M, M Healey, E Wapstra, T Schwartz, N Lebas and T Uller. 2007. Mating system variation and morph fluctuations in a polymorphic lizard. Molecular Ecology 16: 5307-5315.


8. Seebacher, F, TS Schwartz and MB Thompson. 2006. Transition from ectothermy to endothermy: the development of metabolic capacity in a bird (Gallus gallus). Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 273: 565-570.


7. Schwartz, TS, and SA Karl. 2005. Population and conservation genetics of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus). Conservation Genetics 6: 917-928.


6. Schwartz, TS., F Jenkins and LB Beheregaray. 2005. Microsatellite DNA markers developed for the Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) and their cross-amplification in estuary perch (Macquaria colonorum). Molecular Ecology Notes 5: 519-520.


5. Roberts, MA, TS Schwartz and SA Karl. 2004. Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci. Genetics 166: 1857-1870.


4. Beheregaray, LB, TS Schwartz, LM Moller, D Call, NL Chao and A Caccone. 2004a. A set of microsatellite DNA markers for the one-lined pencilfish Nannostomus unifasciatus, an Amazonian flooded forest fish. Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 333-335.


3. Beheregaray, LB, LM Moller, TS Schwartz, NL Chao and A Caccone. 2004b. Microsatellite markers for the cardinal tetra Paracheirodon axelrodi, a commercially important fish from central Amazonia. Molecular Ecology Notes 4: 330-332.


2. Seminoff, JA, SA Karl, T Schwartz and A Resendiz. 2003. Hybridization of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) in the Pacific Ocean: Indication of an absence of gender bias in the directionality of crosses. Bulletin of Marine Science 73: 643-652.


1. Schwartz, TS, M Osentoski, T Lamb and SA Karl. 2003. Microsatellite loci for the North American tortoises (genus Gopherus) and their applicability to other turtle species. Molecular Ecology Notes 3: 283-286. 

Non-Peer Reviewed Reports

Beheregaray, LB, and TS Schwartz, 2011. Chapter 6: Taxonomic assessment of Australian bass and estuary perch, pp. 57-60 in Fisheries Victoria Research Report Series: Freshwater fish resources in the Snowy River, Victoria. Edited by W. Fulton and K. Hall. Fisheries Victoria, Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia.



Schwartz, TS 2003. Genetic population structure of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in Florida using microsatellites. 


Masters of Science Thesis, University of South Florida.Schwartz, TS and T Bert. 2003. Preliminary assessment of the genetic structure of vermilion snapper (Rhomboplites aurorubens). Special Report to the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. FMRI Report Number IHR2003-007.



Schwartz, TS, M Tringali, T Bert, R Nostrom, JE Reynolds, III. 2002. Assessment of a novel approach to obtain genetic specimens from free-ranging manatees. Mote Marine Laboratory Technical Report to Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.